Pharmaceutical Microbiology Question Bank

Pharmaceutical Microbiology Question Bank

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A. Introduction (2 marks)

1. Write four pharmaceutical uses of microorganisms.
2. State Koch’s postulates.
3. List out harmful effects of micro-organisms
4. Write any four applications of Microbiology.
5. Name the major divisions of the microbial world.
6. Write contributions of Antony Van Leeuwen hek.
7. Write the contributions of Edward Jenner.
8. Write contributions of Robert Koch.
9. Write contributions of Louis Pasteur.
10. Write contributions of Alexander Fleming.
11. Write the concept of spontaneous generation

B. Classification of microbes; Nutritional Requirements and Growth.

1. Classify bacteria on the basis of nutritional requirements and add a note on raw materials used for the preparation of culture media. (4+6)
2. Define and classify culture media. Mention salient features of each media along with an example. (1+2+7)
3. Draw an ultrastructure of typical bacteria. Write composition and functions of its organelles. (3+7)
4. Classify bacteria on the basis of morphological features. Add a note on the composition and functions of the cell wall. (6+4)
5. Classify bacteria on the basis of oxygen, pH, and temperature requirements. Add note on the effect of hyper and hypotonicity on bacteria. (2+2+2+4)
6. Describe the bacterial growth curve. Add a note on physical factors affecting the growth of bacteria. (5+5)
7. Classify bacteria on the basis of oxygen requirement. Explain any four efficient methods of cultivation of anaerobic bacteria. (2+8)

Five Marks

1. Describe methods of reproduction in fungi.
2. Write a note on the cultivation of the virus.
3. Discuss the merits and demerits of viral cultivation techniques.
4. Describe steps involved in the replication of the virus.
5. Write about the classification of the virus.
6.Classify bacteria on the basis of nutritional requirements
7. Write a note on raw materials used for the preparation of culture media.
8. Define and classify culture media with examples.
9. Write salient features of differential & selective media along with examples.
10. Classify bacteria on the basis of morphological features.
11. Explain the composition and functions of the cell wall.
12. Differentiate between gram-positive and Gram-negative cell walls.
13. Describe the bacterial growth curve.
14. Write a note on physical factors affecting the growth of bacteria.
15. Explain continuous and synchronous growth techniques.
16. Write a note on the cultivation of anaerobic bacteria.

Two marks

1. Mention media for the cultivation of fungi.
2. Write merits of embryonic cultivation of virus.
3. Write merits of embryonic cultivation of virus.
4. What is capsid?
5. What is the envelope in the virus?
6. Classify fungi.
7. Mention pharmaceutical uses of fungi.
8. Write the structure of a typical virion.
9. What is mycelium?
10. Why are viruses described as obligate parasites?
11. Differentiate between flagella and fimbriae.
12. Differentiate between enrichment and selective media.
13. What is a mesosome?
14. Differentiate between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
15. Differentiate between bacteria and viruses.
16. Differentiate between fungi and bacteria.
17. Differentiate between phototroph and chemotrophs.
18. Write functions of the cytoplasmic membrane.
19. What are plasmids?
20. Write the significance of plasmids.
21. What are micronutrients?
22. Write the composition of Peptidoglycan.
23.What is pleomorphism? Give examples.
24.What are involution forms?
25. What are Intracytoplasmic inclusions? Give examples.
26. Mention functions of the bacterial capsule.
27. What are mesophilic bacteria? Give examples.
28.What are Psychrophilic bacteria? Give examples.
29. What are Thermophilic bacteria? Give examples.
30. What are fastidious bacteria?
31. What is selective media? Give example.
32. What is the pour plate method, write its uses.
33. Differentiate between log phase and decline phase.
34. Differentiate between chemostat and turbidostat.
35. Differentiate between facultative anaerobes and obligatory anaerobes.
36. Differentiate between organotrophs and lithotrophs.
37. Differentiate between autotrophs and heterotrophs.
38. What is anaerobic media? Give examples.
39. What is basal media? Give example.
40. What is synchronous growth?
41. What is transport media? Give one example.
42. What is enriched media? Give example.
43. What is differential media? Give example.
44. What is the role of agar in culture media.
45. Mention arrangement-based classification of cocci.
46. What is the mean generation time?
46. What is a lag phase of growth.
47. What is the log phase of growth.
48. What is a stationary phase of growth.
49. What is the decline phase of growth.
50. List out the different phases of growth of bacteria
51. Mention chemicals used in the gas pack system.
52. Write about Spirochets.
53. What are rickettsiae?

C. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria

Ten Marks Questions

1. Differentiate between gram-positive and Gram-negative cell walls. Add a note on the principle and procedure of Gram’s staining technique. (5+5).
2. Enlist methods used for total and viability counting bacteria. Describe any two methods
of total counting. (4+6)
3. Mention methods used for the identification of bacteria. Explain any four biochemical tests
Used for identification of bacteria. (2+8)
4. Write briefly on various techniques used for identification of bacteria with emphasis on
Biochemical tests.
5. Write in detail about agar plate methods of viability counting.
6. What is pure culture? Enlist methods for isolation of pure culture? Describe any two industrially important techniques of preserving bacteria. (2+3+5)
7. Write about the importance of microbial preservation techniques. Write a procedure, merit, and demerit of any four preservation techniques. (2+8).
What is pure culture? Write in detail about the isolation of pure culture. (2+8)

Five Marks Questions

1. Write the principle and procedure of Gram’s staining technique.
2. Write the principle and procedure of Acid-fast staining.
3. Describe any two methods of viability counting.
4. Describe any two methods of total counting.
5. Write a note on the filter membrane method of counting bacteria.
6. Explain IMViC tests used for the identification of bacteria.
7. Explain MR-VP tests used for the identification of bacteria.
8.Write different methods of motility testing
9. Enlist methods for isolation of pure culture?
10. Describe any two industrially important techniques of preserving bacteria.
11. Write about methods for the maintenance of pure culture.
12. Write about the importance of microbial preservation technique.
13. Write the merit and demerit of any four preservation techniques.
14. Write a note on gelatin liquefaction and starch hydrolysis tests

Two Marks Questions

1. Differentiate between mordant and decolorizing agents.
2. Differentiate between acid-fast and non-acid fast bacteria.
3. Mention uses of preservation techniques.
4. What is a micromanipulator? Mention its use.
5. Write the principle and use of the colter counter instrument.
6. Mention reagents used for acid-fast staining.
7. Mention the role of each chemical used in gram staining.
8. What are cryoprotective agents? Give examples.
9. Write the principle of starch hydrolysis test.
10. Mention Carbohydrate utilization tests.

D. Sterilization and Disinfectants

Long Essay(10 marks)

1. Explain the principle, procedure, applications, and demerits of sterilization using an autoclave (3+3+2+2)
2. Explain the principle and operating procedure of autoclave along with a neat labeled diagram. (4 +6)
3. Explain the principle, procedures, applications, and demerits of sterilization using a hot air oven. (3+3+2+2)
3. Explain the mechanism of action, procedure, applications, and factors affecting sterilization using ethylene oxide. (2+2+2+4)
4. Explain the source, mechanism of sterilization, merit, demerits, and applications of sterilization using Gamma radiations. (1+3+2+2+2)
5. Describe the steps involved in sterility testing; add a note on its interpretation. (6+4)
6. Explain the principles involved in sterilization by filtration. Add a note on its merits and demerits (5+1+4)
7. Classify different sterilization methods. Add a note on sterility test methods.
8. What are sterilization indicators? Mention indicators used for various sterilization methods.
9. Explain different factors affecting disinfection.
10. Explain different methods for the evaluation of the bacteriostatic activity.
11. Describe Redial Walker’s test. List out the merits and demerits of the test.
12. Explain the principle and operating procedure, merits, and demerits of ethylene oxide sterilization.

5 Marks Questions

1. Write the procedure, merits, and demerits of membrane filtration
2. Write the merits and demerits of different sterilizing filters.
3. Write the procedure, merits, and demerits of ethylene oxide sterilization.
4. Explain the principle involved in autoclaving.
5. Explain the mechanism of sterilization and heat transfer by hot air oven.
6. Write the production, mechanism of action, demerits, and applications of UV radiations.
7. Explain the factors affecting gaseous sterilization.
8. Write a note on heating with bactericide
9. Write a note on sterilization indicators.
10. Write about the sampling technique of sterility testing.
11. Justify the importance of controls in sterility testing.
12. Explain any two methods for evaluation of the bacteriostatic activity of a disinfectant.
13. Write the procedure of Redial Walker’s co-efficient test.
14. Mention the merits and demerits of Redial Walker’s co-efficient tests.
15. Explain a test for the evaluation of the bactericidal activity of a disinfectant.
16. What is MIC? Explain the method for its determination
17. Explain the antimicrobial sensitivity test.
18. List out the properties of an ideal disinfectant.
19. Classify disinfectants giving examples
20. Outline mechanism of action for each class of disinfectant.
21. Explain different factors affecting disinfection.
22. Write classification, mechanism of action, and uses of phenolic disinfectants.
23. Explain the mechanism of action and uses of aldehyde disinfectants.
24. Write classification, mechanism of action, and uses of halogens as disinfectants.
25. Write a note on the evaluation of preservatives.
26. Explain the evaluation of the bacteriostatic activity of a disinfectant

2 Marks Questions

1. Define sterilization.
2. What is Pasteurization? List out its applications
3. What is incineration?
4. Explain ‘Heating to red hot’ as a method of sterilization.
5. Mention applications of UV radiations as a sterilant.
6. Explain the advantage of saturated steam over superheated steam.
7. Explain the advantages of autoclaving over hot air sterilization.
8. List out any four applications of gamma irradiation.
9. Mention any four applications of an autoclave.
10. Mention any four applications of dry heat sterilization.
11. Mention any four applications of gaseous sterilization.
12. Mention any four applications of ethylene oxide sterilization
13. Mention any four applications of filtration sterilization
14. Mention any four gaseous sterilants.
15. Mention the ionizing and non-ionizing radiations used for sterilization.
16. Write the mechanism of sterilization by hot air oven.
17. Write the mechanism of sterilization by autoclave.
18. Write mechanism sterilization by ethylene oxide.
19. Write the mechanism involved in membrane filtration sterilization.
20. Mention the demerits of moist heat sterilization
21. Mention the demerits of dry heat sterilization
22. Mention the demerits of ethylene oxide sterilization
23. Mention the demerits of gaseous sterilization
24. Mention the demerits of membrane filtration method of sterilization
25. Mention the demerits of UV radiation sterilization
26. Mention the demerits of gamma radiation as a sterilant
27. Write bio-indicators for thermal sterilization.
28. Mention media used for sterility testing.
29. Why are positive controls used in sterility test
30. Why are negative controls used for sterility test
31. Write applications of membrane filtration
32. Write applications and limitations of formaldehyde as a sterilant.
33. What are HEPA filters?
34. Write the time and temperature of incubation for sterility testing.
35. Define disinfection.
36. Define antisepsis.
37. Differentiate between disinfection and antisepsis.
38. What is a preservative? Give examples
39. Give examples for disinfectants with virucidal activity
40. Give examples for disinfectants with antifungal activity
41. Give examples for disinfectants with sporicidal activity
42. Write the ideal properties of an antiseptic
43. Give examples for aerial disinfectants
44. Give two examples for alcoholic disinfectants. Mention its mechanism of action.
45. Give two examples for halide disinfectants. Mention its mechanism of action.
46. Give two examples for heavy metal compounds used as disinfectants. Mention its mechanism of action.
47. Name any two compounds used for disinfection of water, mention their mechanism of action
48. What is ‘Zone of inhibition’?
49. What is MIC?
50. What is the Disc diffusion method?
51. Write the equation for determination of Redial Walkers co-efficient
52. Difference between bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents.

E. Immunology and Diagnostic Tests

10 Marks Questions

01. Discuss in general the various types of antigen and antibody reactions. Add a note on their applications. (8+2) 02. Mention various antigen-antibody reactions. Discuss in detail the precipitation test. (2+8)
03. Explain types of antibodies. Explain antigen antibody reactions. (5+5)
04. Discuss in detail the Agglutination and complement fixation tests. (6+4)
05. What are different types of antigen? Write the chemical nature of the antigen and antibody. Add a note on antigenic determinants. (2+4+4)
06. Classify antibodies and write note on salient features of each antibody. (2+2+2+2+2)
07. Write about types of immunity and types of vaccines. (5+5)

Five Marks Questions

01. Write principle, procedure and applications of Western Blotting Technique.
02. Write principle, procedure and applications of Southern Blotting Technique.
03. Write principle, procedure and application of Shick’s test.
04. Write principle, procedure and application of QBC test.
05. Write principle, procedure and applications of Monteuxs test
06. Write principle, procedure and applications of ELISA test.
07. Write principle, procedure and applications of Widal test.
08. Enlist different antibody antigen reactions and mention its diagnostic applications.
09. Define immunity. Classify the types of immunity.
10. Write in detail the structure of different types of antibodies with neat labeled diagram.
11. Highlight steps involved in the production of antibodies.
12. What are vaccines? Classify them.
13. What are toxins & toxoids?
14. Add a note on the immunization program.
15. Write about the role of lymphocytes in immunity.
16. Enumerate the differences between endotoxin and exotoxin
17. Write about microbial virulence factors

Two Marks Questions

01. What are haptens?
02. What are epitopes and paratopes?
03. Mention characters of antigen-antibody reactions.
04. What are mixed vaccines? Give examples.
05. Differentiate between killed and live vaccines.
06. Differentiate between active and passive immunity.
07. Differentiate between vaccine and antisera.
08. What are Toxoids?
09. Write the Principle involved in the Widal test.
10. Write the Principle involved in the Monteux test.
11. Write the Principle involved in Western blot
12. Write the applications of the ELISA test
13. Classify immunity
14. Write the significance of H and O antigens
15. Mention diagnostic tests for Tuberculosis
16. Mention diagnostic tests for AIDS
17. Mention diagnostic tests for typhoid
18. Write two differences between agglutination and precipitation reactions.
19. Mention different types of immunoglobulins.
20. What is antitoxin?
21. Write general storage conditions for vaccines and sera.
22. Define vaccine with examples.
23. Define immunity.

H. Microbiological Assays and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing

Five marks questions

1. Write the principle and method of microbiological assay of Vitamin B12.
2. Write principle and method of microbiological assay of Vitamin B2.
3. Write principle and method of microbiological assay of Streptomycin by cup plate method.
4. Write principle and method of microbiological assay of Streptomycin by tube assay method.
5. Write principle and method of microbiological assay of vitamin B12 by titrimetric method.
6. Write about standardization of vaccines and sera
7. Describe a method for antimicrobial sensitivity testing.

Two Marks Questions

1. Write the organisms used for microbiological assay of streptomycin.
2. Write the organisms used for microbiological assay of vitamin B12 and vitamin B2.
3. Enlist the tests for standardization of vaccines.
4. What is anti-microbial sensitivity? Mention one method for its determination.
5. Write about the cup-plate method.
6. Write about the agar diffusion method.

G. Infectious Diseases

Five Marks Questions

1. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Typhoid.
2. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of malaria
3. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis
4. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of syphilis
5. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of AIDS
6. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of cholera
7. Mention the causative organism, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of gonorrhea.
8. What is typhoid? Write the causative organism, mode of transmission, sign, and symptoms.

Two Marks Questions

1. Name the causative organism and diagnostic test for typhoid.
2. Name the causative organism and diagnostic test for tuberculosis.
3. Name the causative organism and diagnostic test for AIDS.
4. Name the causative organism and diagnostic test for malaria.
5. Enlist preventive measures for AIDS
6. Enlist preventive measures for syphilis
7. Enlist preventive measures for malaria.
8. Enlist preventive measures for typhoid.
9. Enlist preventive measures for cholera.
10. Write the mode of transmission of AIDS.
11. Write the mode of transmission of hepatitis.
12. Write the mode of transmission of malaria.
13. Write the mode of transmission of typhoid.
14. Write the mode of transmission of cholera.
15. Write the mode of transmission of syphilis
16. Write the mode of transmission of gonorrhea.

Two marks Questions

1. Mention drugs used for treatment of Tuberculosis.
2. Mention drugs used for treatment of malaria.
3. Mention drugs used for treatment of typhoid.
4. Mention drugs used for treatment of AIDS.
5. Write signs and symptoms of dengue.
6. Write about the prevention of dengue.
7. What are attenuated vaccines? Give examples.

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