PHARM. D. Ist YEAR-MEDICINAL BIOCHEMISTRY QUESTION BANK(Pharm D 1st year Notes, Pharm d 1st year previous Question papers ku, Pharm D past papers, Pharma dost 5th year question papers,Pharm D 1st year Question papers, Pharm d 1st year Question Papers jntu

PHARM. D. Ist YEAR-MEDICINAL BIOCHEMISTRY QUESTION BANK

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INTRODUCTION OF BIOCHEMISTRY

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) Write the structure and significance of cyclic AMP
2) What are high energy compounds? Give two examples.
3) Write the structure and significance of ATP

ENZYMES

LONG ESSAY (10 MARKS)

1) Define an enzyme? Outline the IUB classification of enzymes with examples. Explain the mechanism of enzyme action.
2) Explain the factors affecting enzyme activity. Add a note on the properties of enzymes.
3) Define enzyme inhibition and discuss the different types of enzyme inhibitions.

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) What are isoenzymes? Describe their diagnostic applications.
2) What are coenzymes? Explain the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of niacin.
3) Discuss the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of vitamin B2 and B6.
4) Discuss the biochemical role of coenzyme forms of vitamin B1 and folic acid.
5) Discuss the biochemical role and deficiency symptoms of vitamin B12.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What are allosteric enzymes? Give two examples.
2) Give Michaelis-Menten equation with notations used.
3) Give therapeutic uses of any two enzymes.
4) What is Line-Weaver Burk plot? Give its significance.
5) Define Vmax and write its significance.
6) Define Km and write its significance.
7) What are the two models to explain the active site of enzymes?
8) Define enzyme specificity. Give example.
9) Define holoenzyme and apoenzyme

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM:

LONG ESSAY (10 MARKS)

1) Define glycolysis? Describe the biochemical pathway for the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate and lactate. Write about the energetics.
2) Explain the reactions sequence, significance, and energetics of TCA cycle.
3) Define Gluconeogenesis and explain the reactions involved in it with its significance.
4) Explain glycogenesis and glycogenolysis.
5) Describe the steps involved in the complete oxidation of glucose to pyruvate under aerobic condition with its energetic.

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Discuss the glucose tolerance test with its significance.
2) Outline the various biochemical reactions involved in HMP shunt pathway and write its significance.
3) Discuss the glycogen storage diseases.
4) Explain the hormonal regulation of blood glucose level in the body

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What is Diabetes mellitus? Mention its types.
2) What is the use of malate-aspartate shuttle?
3) What is the amphibolic role of TCA cycle?
4) What are anaplerotic reactions?
5) How many moles of ATPs are formed in glycolysis when the end product is a) Pyruvic acid and b) lactic acid.
6) What is galactose tolerance test? Write its significance.
7) Name the enzymes and coenzymes present in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)complex.
8) Give the significance of HMP shunt.

LIPID METABOLISM

LONG ESSAY (10 MARKS)

1) Describe the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Add a note on the role of cholesterol in the body.

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Explain the â-oxidation of saturated fatty acids. Calculate the ATP generated on complete oxidation of palmitic acid.
2) Explain the reactions of palmitate synthesis, starting from acetyl CoA.
3) What are ketone bodies? Explain the formation and importance of ketone bodies.
4) Describe briefly the synthesis of bile acids. Add a note on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What is the role carnitine in fatty acid oxidation?
2) What is the role of citrate in fatty acid synthesis?
3) What is ketosis? Name the two conditions which lead to ketosis.
4) What is ketolysis? Give its significance.
5) What is the functional significance of fatty acid synthase complex?
6) Name three unsaturated fatty acids. Write the structure of one of them.
7) Enumerate the functions of unsaturated fatty acids.
8) Write the structure of cholesterol. What is the role of cholesterol in our body?
9) What are bile salts? Give their importance.
10) Name three biologically important compounds derived from the catabolism of cholesterol.
11) What is hypercholesterolemia? Name two disorders that result in hypercholesterolemia.
12) What are the two measures that can be used to control hypercholesterolemia?
13) What is fatty liver? Name the two causes responsible for fatty liver?
14) What is atherosclerosis?

NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM

LONG ESSAY (10 MARKS)

1) Describe the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides.
2) Explain the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides.
3) Explain in detail the semiconservative mode of DNA replication.
4) Explain in detail about biosynthesis of proteins.

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Define mutation. Explain various types of the same.
2) Describe the different DNA repair mechanisms.
3) Define genetic code and describe its characteristic features.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What are Okazaki fragments?
2) What is Gout?
3) What are leading and lagging strands?
4) What are nucleotides? Name four nucleotides.
5) Enumerate the purine and pyrimidine bases present in DNA and RNA.
6) What is onion peel model of DNA replication?
7) Name two inhibitors of protein synthesis and their site of action.

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Describe the components of ETC
2) What is oxidative phosphorylation? How does it differ from substrate-level phosphorylation?
3) Explain the chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) Enumerate uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, write their mechanism of action.
2) Name two inhibitors of ETC and their sites of action.
3) What is substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.

PROTEIN & AMINO ACID METABOLISM

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Explain the transamination reactions involved in the catabolism of amino acids.
2) Explain the deamination reactions involved in the catabolism of amino acids.
3) Describe the reactions of urea cycle.
4) Explain phenylketonuria and alkaptonuria.
5) What are porphoria? Explain the types and clinical manifestations of porphoria.
6) Explain the production of bile pigments.
7) What is jaundice and explain the different types of jaundice.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What are transaminases? Write the diagnostic importance of two transaminases.
2) What is the normal blood urea level? Name two conditions in which blood urea level is elevated.
3) Name four metabolic disorders of urea cycle with enzyme defect.
4) What is maple syrup urine disease? What are its characteristics?
5) What is albinism? What are its characteristics?
6) What is homocystinuria? What are its characteristics?
7) What is jaundice?
8) What are bile pigments, name the disease associated with their metabolism.
9) What are porphoria?
10) Define nitrogen balance and protein turnover.

KIDNEY FUNCTION TESTS

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) List out different kidney function tests Explain any two of them.
2) Enlist the tests to assess the renal function? Explain the clearance tests for creatinine and urea.
3) Mention the different kidney function tests. Explain in detail any two.
4) Write a note on urinary tract calculi.
5) Discuss the tests for NPN constituents.
6) Add a note on role of kidneys.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What is semi quantitative urine analysis?
2) What is urine concentration test? Give its significance.
3) What is creatinine clearance test? Give its significance
4) What are urinary tract calculi?
5) What is urea clearance test? Give its significance.
6) Name any four abnormal urine constituents.

LIVER FUNCTION TESTS:

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Discuss the test to assess the metabolic and detoxification capacity of liver.
2) Explain any two liver function tests.
3) Enlist the different liver function tests. Explain the dye test for excretory function of liver.
4) Explain the tests for hepatic dysfunction.
5) Write the principle and significance of SGPT and SGOT determination.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) Give the dye test for excretory function of liver.
2) Name the tests to assess hepatic function.
3) Give the importance of SGPT and SGOT.
4) What is normal serum bilirubin level? Give its significance.
5) Give example for bile salt and bile pigments.
6) What is dye test for excretory function of liver?

LIPID PROFILE TESTS:

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) Describe lipid profile tests.
2) Name the importance of phospholipids and give their physiological role.
3) How will you determine the total cholesterol in serum?
4) Add a note on HDL and LDL.
5) Write the composition and functions of lipoproteins.

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) List out lipid profile tests.
2) Differentiate between good and bad cholesterol.
3) Differentiate between triglyceride and lipoproteins.
4) Write the principle involved in the estimation of cholesterol in serum.
5) Write about HDL and LDL
6) What is the significance of lipid profiling?

IMMUNOLOGICAL TECHENIQUES

SHORT ESSAY (5 Marks)

1) What is radioimmuno assay? Give its principle and applications.
2) What is ELISA? Give its principle and applications

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) What is RIA? Give its significance.
2) What is ELISA? Give its significance.

ELECTROLYTES:

SHORT ANSWERS (2 marks)

1) How is the level of sodium determined in the body fluids?
2) Enumerate the functions of water.
3) How is the level of calcium determined in the body fluids?
4) How is the level of chloride determined in the body fluids?
5) Define hypokalemia and hyponatremia.
6) Write the composition of ORS.
7) Name the different fluid compartments in the body.
8) What is the role of kidney in water balance?
9) What is the role of aldosterone in the regulation of osmolarity?
10) What are the causes of water depletion in the body?
11) What are the causes of water excess in the body?
12) Name the clinical disorders associated with water depletion and water excess?
13) Define acidosis and alkalosis.

 

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