SHORT ANSWERS (2M)
1. Enlist the drugs used by athletes.
• Anabolic steroids
• Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
2. Write the effect of exercises on CVS.
A. Decrease in resting heart rate. Because the rigors of regular exercise require so much work from the cardiovascular system, sedentary periods become even easier for the heart by comparison. The heart eventually becomes more efficient, and no longer needs to beat as quickly to supply the body with blood while at rest.
B. Stroke volume increases at rest. Resting heart rate is able to slow down because the heart is now trained to pump a larger quantity of blood with every beat.
C. Improved circulation. In response to the need to supply the muscles with more oxygen during exercise, the body increases its number of capillaries, the smallest blood vessels in the body. Existing capillaries also open wider.
D. Blood pressure decreases by up to 10 mmHg. An mmHg is a unit used for measuring pressure levels.
E. Blood volume increases. The body produces a greater number of red blood cells in order to keep the muscles supplied with oxygen during heavy exercise
3.Write the effects of exercise on respiration.
Answer: Breathing pattern Over time, with consistent aerobic exercise, your resting respiration rate slows. This is a result of enhanced respiratory muscle endurance and strength. With every breath, your airflow volume is improved compared with the volume prior to an exercise program.
Another result of high-intensity endurance training is more efficient air exchange. Oxygen is readily accepted into the lungs and bloodstream for transportation to the working muscles. Carbon dioxide is more effectively eliminated due to improved respiratory muscle function. When oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges are made at a high level, the body maintains equilibrium, which helps reduce stress and anxiety and improves mental and physical health.
4.Effects of athletic training on muscles.
Answer: The relative ratio of fast glycolytic (FG) and slow oxidative (SO) fibers in each muscle is genetically determined and helps account for individual differences in physical performance. The athlete’s muscle fibers show slight increases in diameter, the number of mitochondria, blood supply, and strength. By contrast, exercises that require great strength for short periods produce an increase in the size and strength of FG fibers. The increase in size is due to the increased synthesis of thick and thin filaments.
5.Effects of exercise on body heat.
Answer: Your muscles quickly deplete stored energy when you start exercising. To make more energy, muscles combine oxygen with ATP. This process creates heat energy as a byproduct. Extra heat raises your body temperature, so your body needs to eliminate heat as quickly as possible. Temperature sensors tell the hypothalamus your body temperature is increasing, and something needs to lower it. During exercise, extra blood flows to your muscles to keep them going. When your body temperature starts to elevate, extra blood flows to your skin, so evaporation, or sweat, can help cool you off. Blood flow diverted from other organs, such as the kidney and liver, allows more blood to flow to your skin surface. Some of the extra heat picked up in the circulatory system is eliminated by respiration as you breathe out the heated air.
6.Effects of exercise on body fluid and salts.
Answer: Exercise increases the loss of water in two ways
1. It increases the rate of the respiratory tract
2. Exercise increases the body heat and thus result in excessive sweating of respiration, which increases water loss through the skin
When a person sweats, small amounts of electrolytes—the electrically charged minerals sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium—are lost from the body along with water. Salt losses are greatest in beginners. Training improves electrolyte retention
Chapter 1. Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject
Chapter 2. Structure of cell – its components and their functions.
Chapter 3. Elementary Tissues of The Human Body
Chapter – 4. Osseous System Question Answer Bank