Scope of anatomy and physiology

Human Anatomy & Physiology Pharm. D. 1st Year Syllabus

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HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (THEORY)

Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week

1. Scope and Objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostasis mechanisms and homeostatic imbalances of various body systems. Since a medicament, which is produced by pharmacist, is used to correct the deviations in human body, it enhances the understanding of how the drugs act on the various body systems in correcting the disease state of the organs.

2. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:

  1. describe the structure (gross and histology) and functions of various organs of the human body;
  2. describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances of various systems;
  3. identify the various tissues and organs of the different systems of the human body;
  4. perform the hematological tests and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse, and Respiratory volumes;
  5. appreciate the coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system; and
  6. appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of the human body

3. Course materials: Textbooks

Tortora Gerard J. and Nicholas, P. Principles of anatomy and physiology Publisher Harpercollins College New York.

Wilson, K.J.W. Ross and Wilson’s foundations of anatomy and physiology. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg.

Reference books

  1. Guyton Arthur, C. Physiology of human body. Publisher: Holtsaunders.
  2. Chatterjee, C.C. Human physiology. Volume 1&11. Publisher: medical allied agency, Calcutta.
  3. Peter L. Williams, Roger Warwick, Mary Dyson and Lawrence, H.
  4. Gray’s anatomy. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, London.

 

4. Lecture wise program :

Topics

 1 Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject (Description of the body as such planes and terminologies)
2 Structure of cell – its components and their functions.
3 Elementary tissues of the human body: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues-their sub-types and characteristics
4

Osseous system

a) structure, composition, and functions of the Skeleton. (done in practical classes – 6hrs)
b) Classification of joints, Types of movements of joints, and disorders of joints (Definitions only)

5

Hemopoietic System

a) Composition and functions of blood
b) Haemopoesis and disorders of blood components (definition of disorder)
c) Blood groups
d) Clotting factors and mechanism
e) Platelets and disorders of coagulation

6

Lymph

a) Lymph and lymphatic system, composition, formation, and circulation.
b) Spleen: structure and functions, Disorders
c) Disorders of the lymphatic system (definition only)

7

Cardiovascular system

a) Anatomy and functions of the heart
b) Blood vessels and circulation (Pulmonary, coronary, and systemic circulation)
c) Electrocardiogram (ECG)
d) Cardiac cycle and heart sounds
e) Blood pressure – its maintenance and regulation
f) Definition of the following disorders Hypertension, Hypotension, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Angina, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias

8

Respiratory system

a) Anatomy of respiratory organs and functions
b) Mechanism/physiology of respiration and regulation of respiration
c) Transport of respiratory gases
d) Respiratory volumes and capacities, and Definition of Hypoxia, Asphyxia, Dybarism, Oxygen therapy, and resuscitation.

9

Digestive system

a) Anatomy and physiology of GIT
b) Anatomy and functions of accessory glands of GIT
c) Digestion and absorption
d) Disorders of GIT (definitions only)

10

Nervous system

a) Definition and classification of the nervous system
b) Anatomy, physiology, and functional areas of the cerebrum
c) Anatomy and physiology of cerebellum
d) Anatomy and physiology of midbrain
e) Thalamus, hypothalamus, and Basal Ganglia
f) Spinal card: Structure & reflexes – mono-poly-planter
g) Cranial nerves – names and functions
h) ANS – Anatomy & functions of sympathetic & parasympathetic N.S.

11

Urinary system

a) Anatomy and physiology of urinary system
b) Formation of urine
c) Renin-Angiotensin system – Juxtaglomerular apparatus – acid-base Balanced) Clearance tests and micturition

12

Endocrine system

a) Pituitary gland
b) Adrenal gland
c) Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
d) Pancreas and gonads

13

Reproductive system

a) Male and female reproductive system
b) Their hormones – Physiology of menstruation
c) Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
d) Sex determination (genetic basis)
e) Pregnancy and maintenance and parturition
f) Contraceptive devices

14

Sense organs

a) Eye  b) Ear  c) Skin  d) Tongue & Nose

15

Skeletal muscles

a) Histology
b) Physiology of Muscle contraction
c) Physiological properties of skeletal muscle and their disorders (definitions)

16

Sports physiology

a) Muscles in exercise, Effect of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance,
b) Respiration in exercise, CVS in exercise, Body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salts in exercise, c) Drugs and athletics

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

General Requirements: Dissection box, Laboratory Napkin, muslin cloth, record, Observation book(100pages), Stationery items, Blood lancet.

Course materials:

Textbooks

Goyal, R. K, Natvar M.P, and Shah S.A, Practical anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, latest edition, Publisher: B.S Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad.

Reference books

Ranade VG, Textbook of practical physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: PVG, Pune Anderson Experimental Physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: NA

List of Experiments:

  • Study of tissues of the human body
  1. epithelial tissue.
  2. Muscular tissue.
  • Study of tissues of the human body
  1. Connective tissue.
  2. Nervous tissue.
  • Study of appliances used in hematological experiments.
  • Determination of W.B.C. count of the blood.
  • Determination of R.B.C. count of the blood.
  • Determination of differential count of the blood.
  • Determination of
  1. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
  2. Hemoglobin content of Blood.
  3. Bleeding time & Clotting time.

 

  1. Determination of

Blood Pressure.

Blood group.

  1. Study of various systems with the help of charts, models & specimens

(a) Skeleton system part I-axial skeleton.

(b) Skeleton system part II- appendicular skeleton.

(c) Cardiovascular system.

(d) Respiratory system.

(e) Digestive system.

(f) Urinary system.

(g) Nervous system.

(h) Special senses.

(i) Reproductive system.

  1. Study of different family planning appliances.
  2. To perform pregnancy diagnosis test.
  3. Study of appliances used in experimental physiology.
  4. To record simple muscle curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  5. To record simple summation curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  6. To record simple effect of temperature using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  7. To record simple effect of load & afterload using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  8. To record simple fatigue curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals Annual
Identification 04 10
Synopsis 04 10
Major Experiment 07 20
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs

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