Molecular Polarity of Bonds

Human Anatomy & Physiology : Question Bank Complete Syllabus

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HAP I Pharm D 1st Year

CHAPTER 1. Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject. (description of the body as such planes and terminologies)

SHORT ESSAYS (2M)

1.Define Anatomy and Physiology.

2.Define anatomical position, sagittal plane.

3.Mention the descriptive terms used in Anatomy.

CHAPTER 2. STRUCTURE OF CELL-ITS COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS.

SHORT ESSAY (5M)

  1. Explain the structure and functions of the cell membrane.**
  2. Describe the functions of the Golgi complex and mitochondria.
  3. Mention different cell organelles with their functions.
  4. Distinguish between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER). What are the functions of ER?
  5. Discuss the structure and functions of ribosomes and lysosomes.
  6. Draw a neat labeled diagram of the cell and write the functions of the nucleus.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Write the functions of mitochondria.
  2. Explain the functions of plasma membrane.
  3. Why are mitochondria referred to as “power houses” of the cell?
  4. Why the nucleus is called the control center of the cell? Write its functions.
  5. Describe a mitochondria
  6. Lysosomes and chromosomes
  7. Mention the components of a cell.

CHAPTER 3. ELEMENTARY TISSUES OF THE HUMAN BODY

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

1.Classify tissues with examples.

2.Explain the differences among skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.

3.Define cartilage, mention its type. Give the description, function, and examples of each of them.

4.Differenceiate between loose and dense connective tissues.

5.Describe the different types of epithelial tissues with examples.

6.Explain the structure and functions of the neuron.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Classify muscular tissue with examples.
  2. Classify connective tissue with examples.
  3. Draw a neat labeled diagram of a neuron.
  4. Classify simple epithelium with examples.
  5. Classify compound epithelium with examples.
  6. Write the general characteristics of epithelial tissue.
  7. Write the location and functions of the Transitional epithelium.

CHAPTER 4. OSSEOUS SYSTEM

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Classify joints with examples
  2. Explain the Haversian canal system of bone.
  3. Write the composition and functions of bone.
  4. Describe angular and special movements of joints.
  5. What is a synovial joint? Explain its types with examples.
  6. Classify the axial skeletal system with examples.
  7. Classify the appendicular skeletal system with examples.
  8. Classify bones on the basis of shape along with examples.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Name synovial joints
  2. Classify bone marrow and functions.
  3. Define an articulation.
  4. Write the histology of bone
  5. Name the bones of the cranium
  6. Name the bone cells
  7. Name the bones of the face.
  8. Mention the bones of the upper limb.
  9. Mention the bones of the lower limb.
  10. Name the bones of the vertebral column.
  11. Write the functions of bone.

CHAPTER 5. HAEMOPOIETIC SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Describe the constituents of blood and their functions.
  2. Mention coagulation factors and write the mechanism of blood coagulation
  3. Describe the process of Erythropoiesis and factors required or influencing erythropoiesis.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Describe the ABO system of blood grouping.
  2. Describe the structure and functions of platelets.
  3. Write any eight functions of blood.
  4. What is anemia? Explain its types
  5. Classify leucocytes. Mention its functions.
  6. Explain the factors influencing blood coagulation.
  7. What is the basis for the Rh system? Write a note on the hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis).
  8. Describe the constituents of plasma and its functions.*

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. What is anemia.? How it is caused.
  2. Write stages of formation of RBC
  3. Write the normal values and life span of the following:

(a)Hb;      (b) WBC;      (c) RBC;     and (d) platelets

  1. Mention different types of anemia.
  2. Explain Thrombocytopenia purpura.
  3. What is polycythemia? Give its reasons.
  4. Write the functions of WBC
  5. Write the functions of plasma proteins.
  6. What is the Rh factor?
  7. What is the difference between plasma and serum?
  8. Compare erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes with respect to size, number per mm3, and life span.
  9. What is hemophilia? Describe its signs and symptoms.
  10. Write any four factors hastening the clotting.

CHAPTER 6.THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Describe the anatomy and functions of the spleen.
  2. Write a note on lymph and its functions.
  3. Identify the components and functions of the lymphatic system.
  4. Describe the structure of a lymph node. Write its functions.
  5. Write a note on disorders of the lymph and lymphatic system.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. What are the lymph nodes?
  2. Write about the functions of the spleen.
  3. Write the composition of the lymph.
  4. write the functions of lymph nodes
  5. What is lymphoedema and splenomegaly?

CHAPTER 7. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Describe the internal anatomy of the heart with a neat labeled diagram
  2. Define blood pressure and discuss various factors regulating the blood pressure in human beings.
  3. What is the cardiac cycle? Describe various events of the cardiac cycle.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Explain the normal ECG with a labeled diagram.
  2. Explain systemic and pulmonary circulation.
  3. Explain coronary and portal blood circulation.
  4. Write short note on heart valves and heart sounds.
  5. Explain the gross anatomy of the heart.
  6. Discuss the factors regulating blood pressure.

SHORT ANSWERS(2M)

  1. Explain heart sounds
  2. Define the term -angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.
  3. Define cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrhythmia.
  4. Define Atherosclerosis and Congestive cardiac failure.
  5. What is cardiac output? How it is calculated.
  6. Draw ECG and label deflection waves.
  7. Define hypertension and hypotension.
  8. Mention the factors affecting blood pressure.
  9. Mention the events of the cardiac cycle.
  10. Mention the layers and valves of the heart.

CHAPTER 8 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. What is external respiration? Explain the regulation of respiration.
  2. Discuss the gross anatomy of the respiratory system with a suitable diagram.
  3. Give an account of the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
  4. Explain the mechanism of respiration.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Write a short note on artificial respiration.
  2. Explain the mechanism of breathing.
  3. Internal and external respiration.
  4. Describe the location and anatomy of lungs
  5. Explain the lung volumes and capacities.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Define vital capacity. Write its normal value.
  2. Define hypoxia and asphyxia
  3. Define oxygen therapy and resuscitation.
  4. Define dysbarism and tidal volume.
  5. Name the muscles of respiration.
  6. Write the role of chemoreceptors in respiration.

CHAPTER 9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Draw a neat diagram of the GI tract. Explain how fats are digested and absorbed.
  2. Describe the gross anatomy of the stomach. Explain its physiological functions.
  3. Write the anatomy of the pancreas. Discuss the endocrine and exocrine secretions of pancreas.
  4. Describe the anatomy, histology, and functions of the small intestine and stomach.
  5. Explain how digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats takes place.
  6. Describe the anatomy of the liver and mention its functions.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. List out the various enzymes present in the secretions of GIT.
  2. Write the composition and functions of gastric juice.
  3. Name salivary glands and discuss the composition and functions of saliva.
  4. Discuss the digestion of carbohydrates.
  5. Discuss the food absorption in the small intestine.
  6. Describe the functions of the liver.
  7. Describe the digestion in the small intestine.
  8. Explain how digestion takes place in the stomach.
  9. Write the exocrine functions of the pancreas.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Name digestive enzymes.
  2. Give functions of bile.
  3. Write exocrine functions of the pancreas
  4. What do mean by peptic ulcer
  5. Draw a neat labeled diagram of the stomach
  6. Name the salivary glands and functions of their secretions.*
  7. Explain the peristaltic movement of the small intestine.
  8. Mention the functions of pancreatic enzymes.
  9. Write the composition of bile.
  10. Mention the functions of the stomach.
  11. What is liver cirrhosis?

CHAPTER 10. NERVOUS SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Describe the structure and functional areas of the cerebrum.
  2. Describe the origination and functions of the autonomic nervous system.
  3. Define the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems and discuss their anatomical and physiological differences.
  4. Explain the functions of different cranial nerves.
  5. Name the divisions of the CNS and explain the functions of the hypothalamus and cerebrum.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Mention the anatomical location and functions of the following structures:

a). Basal ganglia.                                          b). Thalamus.

  1. What are the functions of medulla oblongata and pons?
  2. Describe the meninges and ventricles in the brain?
  3. What are the functions of the cerebellum?
  4. Define reflex action with an example.
  5. Describe sympathetic outflow.
  6. Write the effects of parasympathetic stimulation.
  7. Define the limbic system. Explain several of its functions.
  8. Discuss the internal structure of the spinal cord
  9. 10 Write the composition and functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Enumerate the functions of the hypothalamus.
  2. Draw and label schematic diagram of the spinal reflex arc.
  3. Write the main functions of cerebrospinal fluid.
  4. Give a brief account of CTZ (chemoceptor trigerzone).
  5. Draw and label diagram of a neuron.
  6. What is a ganglion? Give its role in the nervous system.
  7. What is synaptic cleft? State its function.
  8. Classify the nervous system.
  9. Name the ventricles present in the brain.
  10. What is extrapyramidal tract?
  11. Write the functions of the olfactory and optic nerve.

CHAPTER 11. URINARY SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Draw a neat, labeled diagram of nephron and describe how urine is formed?
  2. Describe the structure of the kidney and explain its functions.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Write a note on Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system.
  2. Write the structure of the nephron with a neat labeled diagram
  3. Role of the kidney in maintaining acid-base balance.
  4. What are the functions of the kidney?
  5. What is micturition? Describe the micturition reflex.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Write significance of inulin clearance test
  2. What is the renal clearance test? Mention its types.
  3. Define micturition

CHAPTER 12. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Mention the hormones of the pituitary gland and write the functions of each.
  2. Write the synthesis, storage, release, and functions of thyroid hormones.
  3. Explain the physiological role of adrenal cortical hormones.
  4. What are the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland? Discuss the regulation of their secretion and physiological function.
  5. Define hormone. Discuss various feedback mechanisms involved in the secretion of hormones.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Write the functions of insulin and glucagon
  2. Write the functions of glucocorticoids.
  3. Write a short note on parathyroid glands.
  4. Describe the anatomical location, histology, and physiological role of the pancreas.
  5. Mention the hormones of the anterior pituitary and explain their functions.
  6. Discuss the functions of thyroxin.
  7. Write the functions of hormones of the neurohypophysis.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Write physiological functions of vasopressin.
  2. Write symptoms of Addison’s disease.
  3. Write the outcome of hyperthyroidism.
  4. What is cretinism?
  5. State functions of hormones of the adrenal medulla.
  6. Define thyrotoxicosis and cretinism.
  7. What are pheochromocytoma and myxoedema?
  8. What is goiter?
  9. Functions of ADH and oxytocin*
  10. Define acromegaly and gigantism.
  11. Define diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
  12. What is a positive feedback mechanism?

CHAPTER 13. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Describe the different phases of the female reproductive cycle
  2. Explain the steps involved in the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Explain spermatogenesis
  2. Describe the mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives
  3. Describe the functions of the ovary
  4. Write a note on IUCD.
  5. Write a short note on oral contraceptives
  6. Write a note on the menstrual cycle
  7. Classify temporary methods of contraception for females.
  8. Describe the structure of the ovary and testes.
  9. Write a note on the role of sex hormones in the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
  10. Write a note on female contraceptive devices.
  11. Describe the internal structure and functions of the testis.
  12. Write a note on sex determination (genetic basis)

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Explain corpus lutetium
  2. Name Gonadotrophins and give their functions.
  3. Write surgical methods of family planning.
  4. Name a few contraceptive methods.
  5. Define the menstrual cycle.
  6. What are vasectomy and tubectomy?
  7. Name the ducts of the male reproductive system in order (proximal to distal).
  8. What are sex hormones?
  9. Define the reproduction and list the organs of the male reproductive system.
  10. list the organs of the male reproductive system.
  11. What is parturition?
  12. Define the terms- monarch, and menopause.

CHAPTER 14 SENSE ORGANS

LONG ESSAYS (10M)

  1. Write a neat, labeled diagram of the eye and explain the physiology of vision
  2. Write a neat, labeled diagram of the ear and explain the physiology of hearing

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Draw a neat-labeled diagram of skin.
  2. Describe the structure of the eyeball
  3. Draw a neat-labeled diagram of the ear. What is the non-hearing function of the ear?
  4. Describe the structure of olfactory receptors.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. What are the functions of the skin?
  2. Functions of photoreceptors.
  3. Write the non-auditory functions of the ear.
  4. What are olfactory receptors?
  5. What are gustatory receptors?
  6. What is myopia and hypermetropia?
  7. What is glaucoma?
  8. Mention the ear ossicles and their location.
  9. Mention the papillae and taste buds.

CHAPTER 15. SKELETAL MUSCLE

SHORT ESSAYS (5M)

  1. Write about the physiology of skeletal muscle contraction.
  2. Write a note on the neuromuscular junction.
  3. Describe the structure of skeletal muscle.

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Write a short note on Myasthenia gravis.
  2. How do isotonic and isometric contractions differ?
  3. Mention the properties of skeletal muscle
  4. Draw a neat labeled diagram of sarcomere
  5. Mention the proteins of skeletal muscle.
  6. Define the term Rigor- Mortis

CHAPTER 16. SPORTS PHYSIOLOGY

SHORT ANSWERS (2M)

  1. Enlist the drugs used by athletes.
  2. Write the effect of exercises on CVS.
  3. Write the effects of exercise on respiration.
  4. Effects of athletic training on muscles.
  5. Effects of exercise on body heat.
  6. Effects of exercise on body fluid and salts.
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