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elixirs

Elixirs & It’s types

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These are sweetened, flavored hydro-alcoholic preparations usually containing bitter or potent medicaments such as anthelmintics, antihistamines, and sedatives. The alcohol concentration of an elixir is generally between 10% and 40%. Elixirs are clear preparations and are more fluid than syrup because of the use of less-viscous ingredients. They are palatable, and hence, they are often administered to infants and children. Elixirs are classified into medicated and nonmedicated elixirs.

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These are hydroalcoholic preparations containing more potent substances such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and sedatives. Alcohol concentration is usually 10%–40%. Elixirs are clear preparations and colored medications. They are more fluid than syrup because of the use of less-viscous ingredients.

The characteristics of an elixir include the following:
1. It solubilizes the active ingredients and some excipients.
2. It retards the crystallization of sugar.
3. It preserves the finished product.
4. It provides sharpness to the taste.
5. It aids in masking the unpleasant taste of the active ingredients.
6. It enhances the flavor.

Elixirs are of two types as follows:

1. Non-medicated elixir: These are used as diluting agents or solvents for drugs containing approximately 25% alcohol.

2. Medicated elixirs: Elixirs containing therapeutically active compounds are known as medicated elixirs, for example, phenobarbital elixir USP, dexamethasone elixir USP.

Example
Piperazine citrate elixir I.P.

Piperazine citrate                            18 g
Chloroform spirit                            0.5 ml
Glycerin                                            10 ml
Orange oil                                        0.025 ml
Syrup                                                50 ml
Purified water (q.s.)                       100 ml

Piperazine citrate is dissolved in a part of purified water. Orange oil, glycerin, syrup, chloroform spirit and a sufficient quantity of water are added to produce the required volume. The resulting solution is mixed well and filtered if needed.

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