Introduction

A Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD; New Latin Pharmaciae Doctor) is a professional doctorate in pharmacy. In some countries, it is a first professional degree and a prerequisite for licensing to practice the profession of pharmacy or to become a clinical pharmacist. In many countries, they are allowed to practice independently and can prescribe drugs directly to patients. A Pharm D program has significant experiential or clinical education components in introductory and advanced levels for the safe and effective use of drugs. Experiential education prepares graduates to be practice-ready, as they already have spent a significant amount of time training in areas of direct patient care and research. A Pharm D graduate is entitled to prefix their name with “Dr.”

The academic study includes the same subjects such as B. Pharm, in addition, the pharmacy practice components are emphasized such as Hospital Pharmacy, Community Pharmacy, Pharmacotherapeutics, Clinical Pharmacy, Biostatistics, and Research Methodology, Clinical Toxicology, Clinical Research, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacoeconomics, Clinical Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacotherapeutic Drug Monitoring. Further to add, in the fifth year of the course the candidate has to perform a project work for six months. Pharm D (post-baccalaureate) is a three-year course that includes two years of academics and one-year internship after B.Pharm.

Some unique features of Pharm D include- eligibility to register for Ph.D., prefix ‘Dr.’ to name, and a registrable qualification after completion of course.

Duration of the course: –

1.D: The duration of the course shall be six academic years (five years of study and one year of internship or residency) full time with each academic year spread over a period of not less than two hundred working days. The period of six years duration is divided into two phases –

Phase I – consisting of First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth academic year.

Phase-II – consisting of internship or residency training during sixth year involving posting in specialty units. It is a phase of training wherein a student is exposed to actual pharmacy practice or clinical pharmacy services and acquires skill under supervision so that he or she may become capable of functioning independently.

1.D: (Post Baccalaureate): The duration of the course shall be for three academic years (two years of study and one-year internship or residency) full time with each academic year spread over a period of not less than two hundred working days. The period of three years duration is divided into two phases –

Phase I – consisting of First and Second academic year.

Phase-II – consisting of Internship or residency training during the third year involving posting in specialty units. It is a phase of training wherein a student is exposed to actual pharmacy practice or clinical pharmacy services, and acquires skill under supervision so that he or she may become capable of functioning independently.

Minimum qualification for admission to. –

1.D: Part-I Course – A pass in any of the following examinations –

  • 10+2 examination with Physics and Chemistry as compulsory subjects along with one of the following subjects: Mathematics or Biology.
  • A pass in D.Pharm course from an institution approved by the Pharmacy Council of India under section 12 of the Pharmacy Act.

(3) Any other qualification approved by the Pharmacy Council of India as equivalent to any of the above examinations. Provided that a student should complete the age of 17 years on or before 31st December of the year of admission to the course. Provided that there shall be reservation of seats for the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in accordance with the instructions issued by the Central Government/State Government/Union Territory Administration as the case may be from time to time.

D. (Post Baccalaureate) Course

A pass in B.Pharm from an institution approved by the Pharmacy Council of India under section 12 of the Pharmacy Act: Provided that there shall be reservation of seats for the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes in accordance with the instructions issued by the Central Government/State Government/Union Territory Administration as the case may be from time to time.

Number of seats in any university or college

Number of admissions in the above-said programmes shall be as prescribed by the Pharmacy Council of India from time to time and presently be restricted as below –

  1. D. Programme – 30 students.
  2. D. (Post Baccalaureate) Programme – 10 students.

Course of study: –

The course of study for Pharm.D. shall include the subjects as given in the Tables below. The number of hours in a week, devoted to each subject for its teaching in theory, practical and tutorial shall not be less than that noted against it.

First Year :

First Year: S.No.

Name of Subject

No. of hours of Theory

No. of hours of Practical

No. of hours of Tutorial

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

1.1

Human Anatomy and Physiology

3

3

1

1.2

Pharmaceutics

2

3

1

1.3

Medicinal Biochemistry

3

3

1

1.4

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry

3

3

1

1.5

Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

2

3

1

1.6

Remedial Mathematics/ Biology

3

3*

1

Total hours

16

18

6 = (40)

               

*Biology

Second Year :

Second Year: S.No

Name of Subject

No. of hours of Theory

No. of hours of Practical

No. of hours of Tutorial

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

2.1

Pathophysiology

3

1

2.2

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

3

3

1

2.3

Pharmacognosy & Phytopharmaceuticals

3

3

1

2.4

Pharmacology-I

3

1

2.5

Community Pharmacy

2

1

2.6

Pharmacotherapeutics-I

3

3

1

Total Hours

17

9

6 = 32

               

 

Third Year :

Third Year: S.No.

Name of Subject

No. of hours of Theory

No. of hours of Practical

No. of hours of Tutorial

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

3.1

Pharmacology-II

3

3

1

3.2

Pharmaceutical Analysis

3

3

1

3.3

Pharmacotherapeutics-II

3

3

1

3.4

Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence

2

3.5

Medicinal Chemistry

3

3

1

3.6

Pharmaceutical Formulations

2

3

1

Total hours

16

15

5 = 36

               

 

Fourth Year :

 

Fourth Year: S.No.

Name of Subject

No. of hours of Theory

No. of hours of Practical/ Hospital Posting

No. of hours of Tutorial

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

4.1

Pharmacotherapeutics-III

3

3

1

4.2

Hospital Pharmacy

2

3

1

4.3

Clinical Pharmacy

3

3

1

4.4

Biostatistics & Research Methodology

2

1

4.5

Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics

3

3

1

4.6

Clinical Toxicology

2

1

Total hours

15

12

6 = 33

               

 

Fifth Year : 

Fifth Year: S.No.

Name of Subject

No. of hours of Theory

No. of hours of Hospital posting*

No. of hours of Seminar

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

5.1

Clinical Research

3

1

5.2

Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics

3

1

5.3

Clinical Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacotherapeutic Drug Monitoring

2

1

5.4

Clerkship *

1

5.5

Project work (Six Months)

20

Total hours

8

20

4 = 32

               

 * Attending ward rounds on daily basis.

 Sixth Year :

Internship or residency training including postings in speciality units. Student should independently provide the clinical pharmacy services to the allotted wards.

  • Six months in General Medicine department, and
  • Two months each in three other speciality departments.

Examination:

  • Every year there shall be an examination to examine the students.
  • Each examination may be held twice every year. The first examination in a year shall be the annual examination and the second examination shall be supplementary examination.
  • The examinations shall be of written and practical (including oral nature) carrying maximum marks for each part of a subject as indicated in Tables below :

First Year Examination

First Year examination: S.No.

Name of Subject

Maximum marks for Theory

Maximum marks for Practicals

Examination

Sessional

Total

Examination

Sessional

Total

1.1

Human Anatomy and Physiology

70

30

100

70

30

100

1.2

Pharmaceutics

70

30

100

70

30

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry

70

30

100

70

30

100

1.5

Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

70

30

100

70

30

100

1.6

Remedial Mathematics/ Biology

70

30

100

70*

30*

100*

600

                                               600 = 1200

                       

 

Second Year Examination

Second Year examination : S.No.

Name of Subject

Maximum marks for Theory

Maximum marks for Practicals

Examination

Sessional

Total

Examination

Sessional

Total

 

2.1

Pathophysiology

70

30

100

2.2

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

70

30

100

70

30

100

2.3

Pharmacognosy & Phytopharmaceuticals

70

30

100

70

30

100

2.4

Pharmacology-I

70

30

100

2.5

Community Pharmacy

70

30

100

2.6

Pharmacotherapeutics-I

70

30

100

70

30

100

600

300 = 900

                         

 

Third Year Examination

 

Third Year examination : S.No.

Name of Subject

Maximum marks for Theory

Maximum marks for Practicals

Examination

Sessional

Total

Examination

Sessional

Total

3.1

Pharmacology-II

70

30

100

70

30

100

3.2

Pharmaceutical Analysis

70

30

100

70

30

100

3.3

Pharmacotherapeutics-II

70

30

100

70

30

100

3.4

Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence

70

30

100

3.5

Medicinal Chemistry

70

30

100

70

30

100

3.6

Pharmaceutical Formulations

70

30

100

70

30

100

600

500 = 1100

                       

 

Fourth Year Examination

 

S.No.

Name of Subject

Maximum marks for Theory

Maximum marks for Practicals

Examination

Sessional

Total

Examination

Sessional

Total

 

4.1

Pharmacotherapeutics-III

70

30

100

70

30

100

4.2

Hospital Pharmacy

70

30

100

70

30

100

4.3

Clinical Pharmacy

70

30

100

70

30

100

4.4

Biostatistics & Research Methodology

70

30

100

4.5

Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics

70

30

100

70

30

100

4.6

Clinical Toxicology

70

30

100

600

400 = 1000

                         

 

Fifth Year Examination

Fifth Year examination: S.No.

Name of Subject

Maximum marks for Theory

Maximum marks for Practicals

Examination

Sessional

Total

Examination

Sessional

Total

 

5.1

Clinical Research

70

30

100

 

5.2

Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics

70

30

100

 

5.3

Clinical Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacotherapeutic Drug Monitoring

70

30

100

 

5.4

Clerkship *

70

30

100

 

5.5

Project work (Six Months)

100**

100

 

300

200 = 500

                           

 

* Attending ward rounds on daily basis.

** 30 marks – viva-voce (oral)

70 marks – Thesis work

Six-Year Examination

 Internship

Eligibility for appearing Examination.

Only such students who produce certificate from the Head of the Institution in which he or she has undergone the Pharm.D. or as the case may be, the Pharm.D. (Post Baccalaureate) course, in proof of his or her having regularly and satisfactorily undergone the course of study by attending not less than 80% of the classes held both in theory and in practical separately in each subject shall be eligible for appearing at examination.

Mode of examinations.

  • Theory examination shall be of three hours and practical examination shall be of four hours duration.
  • A student who fails in theory or practical examination of a subject shall re-appear both in theory and practical of the same subject.
  • Practical examination shall also consist of a viva –voce (oral) examination.
  • Clerkship examination – Oral examination shall be conducted after the completion of the clerkship of students. An external and internal examiner will evaluate the student. Students may be asked to present the allotted medical cases followed by discussion. Students’ capabilities in delivering clinical pharmacy services, pharmaceutical care planning, and knowledge of therapeutics shall be assessed.

Minimum marks for passing examination.

A student shall not be declared to have passed examination unless he or she secures at least 50% marks in each of the subjects separately in the theory examinations, including sessional marks and at least 50% marks in each of the practical examinations including sessional marks. The students securing 60% marks or above in aggregate in all subjects in a single attempt at the Pharm.D. or as the case may be, Pharm. D. (Post Baccalaureate) course examination shall be declared to have passed in first class. Students securing 75% marks or above in any subject or subjects shall be declared to have passed with distinction in the subject or those subjects provided he or she passes in all the subjects in a single attempt.

PHARM.D. SYLLABUS

First Year
1.1 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (THEORY)

Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week

  1. Scope and Objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostasis mechanisms and homeostatic imbalances of various body systems. Since a medicament, which is produced by pharmacist, is used to correct the deviations in human body, it enhances the understanding of how the drugs act on the various body systems in correcting the disease state of the organs. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:
  2. describe the structure (gross and histology) and functions of various organs of the human body;
  3. describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances of various systems;
  4. identify the various tissues and organs of the different systems of the human body;
  5. perform the hematological tests and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse, and Respiratory volumes;
  6. appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system; and
  7. appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of human body
    3. Course materials: Textbooks
  8. Tortora Gerard J. and Nicholas, P. Principles of anatomy and physiology Publisher Harpercollins College New York.
  9. Wilson, K.J.W. Ross and Wilson’s foundations of anatomy and physiology. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg.

Reference books

  1. Guyton Arthur, C. Physiology of human body. Publisher: Holtsaunders.
  2. Chatterjee, C.C. Human physiology. Volume 1&11. Publisher: medical allied agency, Calcutta.
  3. Peter L. Williams, Roger Warwick, Mary Dyson and Lawrence, H.
  4. Gray’s anatomy. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, London.
  5. Lecture wise program :

Topics

 1

Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject (Description of the body as such planes and terminologies)

2

Structure of cell – its components and their functions.

3

Elementary tissues of the human body: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues-their sub-types and characteristics

4

a) Osseous system – structure, composition, and functions of the Skeleton. (done in practical classes – 6hrs) b) Classification of joints, Types of movements of joints, and disorders of joints (Definitions only)

5

Haemopoetic System a) Composition and functions of blood b) Haemopoesis and disorders of blood components (definition of disorder) c) Blood groups d) Clotting factors and mechanism e) Platelets and disorders of coagulation

6

Lymph a) Lymph and lymphatic system, composition, formation, and circulation. b) Spleen: structure and functions, Disorders c) Disorders of lymphatic system (definition only)

7

Cardiovascular system a) Anatomy and functions of heart b) Blood vessels and circulation (Pulmonary, coronary and systemic circulation) c) Electrocardiogram (ECG) d) Cardiac cycle and heart sounds e) Blood pressure – its maintenance and regulation f) Definition of the following disorders Hypertension, Hypotension, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Angina, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias

8

Respiratory system a) Anatomy of respiratory organs and functions b) Mechanism/physiology of respiration and regulation of respiration c) Transport of respiratory gases d) Respiratory volumes and capacities, and Definition of Hypoxia, Asphyxia, Dybarism, Oxygen therapy, and resuscitation.

9

Digestive system a) Anatomy and physiology of GIT b) Anatomy and functions of accessory glands of GIT c) Digestion and absorption d) Disorders of GIT (definitions only)

10

Nervous system a) Definition and classification of nervous system b) Anatomy, physiology and functional areas of cerebrum c) Anatomy and physiology of cerebellum d) Anatomy and physiology of midbrain e) Thalamus, hypothalamus, and Basal Ganglia f) Spinal card: Structure & reflexes – mono-poly-planter g) Cranial nerves – names and functions h) ANS – Anatomy & functions of sympathetic & parasympathetic N.S.

11

Urinary system a) Anatomy and physiology of urinary system b) Formation of urine c) Renin-Angiotensin system – Juxtaglomerular apparatus – acid-base Balanced) Clearance tests and micturition

12

Endocrine system a) Pituitary gland b) Adrenal gland c) Thyroid and Parathyroid glands d) Pancreas and gonads

13

Reproductive system a) Male and female reproductive system b) Their hormones – Physiology of menstruation c) Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis d) Sex determination (genetic basis) e) Pregnancy and maintenance and parturition f) Contraceptive devices

14

Sense organs a) Eye b) Ear c) Skin d) Tongue & Nose

15

Skeletal muscles a) Histology b) Physiology of Muscle contraction c) Physiological properties of skeletal muscle and their disorders (definitions)

16

Sports physiology a) Muscles in exercise, Effect of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance, b) Respiration in exercise, CVS in exercise, Body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salts in exercise, c) Drugs and athletics


1.1 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

General Requirements: Dissection box, Laboratory Napkin, muslin cloth, record, Observation book(100pages), Stationary items, Blood lancet.

Course materials:

Textbooks

Goyal, R. K, Natvar M.P, and Shah S.A, Practical anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, latest edition, Publisher: B.S Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad.

Reference books

Ranade VG, Textbook of practical physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: PVG, Pune Anderson Experimental Physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: NA

List of Experiments:

  1. Study of tissues of human body
  2. Epithelial tissue.
  3. Muscular tissue.
  4. Study of tissues of human body
  • Connective tissue.

(b) Nervous tissue.

  1. Study of appliances used in hematological experiments.
  2. Determination of W.B.C. count of blood.
  3. Determination of R.B.C. count of blood.
  4. Determination of differential count of blood.
  5. Determination of
  6. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
  • Hemoglobin content of Blood.
  • Bleeding time & Clotting time.

 

  1. Determination of
  • Blood Pressure.

(b) Blood group.

  1. Study of various systems with the help of charts, models & specimens

(a) Skeleton system part I-axial skeleton.

(b) Skeleton system part II- appendicular skeleton.

(c) Cardiovascular system.

(d) Respiratory system.

(e) Digestive system.

(f) Urinary system.

(g) Nervous system.

(h) Special senses.

(i) Reproductive system.

  1. Study of different family planning appliances.
  2. To perform pregnancy diagnosis test.
  3. Study of appliances used in experimental physiology.
  4. To record simple muscle curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  5. To record simple summation curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  6. To record simple effect of temperature using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  7. To record simple effect of load & afterload using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  8. To record simple fatigue curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.

Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals

Annual

Identification

04

10

Synopsis

04

10

Major Experiment

07

20

Minor Experiment

03

15

Viva

02

15

Max Marks

20

70

Duration

03hrs

04hrs

       

 

1.2 PHARMACEUTICS (THEORY)

 Theory: 2 Hrs. /Week

  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the art and science of formulating different dosage forms. It prepares the students for most basics of the applied field of pharmacy.
  2. Upon the completion of the course the student should be able to:
  3. know the formulation aspects of different dosage forms;
  4. do different pharmaceutical calculation involved in formulation;
  5. formulate different types of dosage forms; and
  6. appreciate the importance of good formulation for effectiveness.
  7. Course materials:

Textbooks

  1. Cooper and Gunns Dispensing for pharmacy students.
  2. A textbook Professional Pharmacy by N.K.Jain and S.N.Sharma.

Reference books

  1. Introduction to Pharmaceutical dosage forms by Howard C. Ansel.
  2. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  3. Register of General Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
  4. General Pharmacy by M.L.Schroff.
  5. Lecture wise program:

 

Topics

1

 

a. Introduction to dosage forms – classification and definitions

b. Prescription: definition, parts, and handling

c. Posology: Definition, Factors affecting dose selection. Calculation of children and infant doses.

 

2

Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry in brief.

3

Development of Indian Pharmacopoeia and introduction to other Pharmacopoeias such as BP, USP, European Pharmacopoeia, Extra pharmacopoeia, and Indian national formulary.

4

Weights and measures, Calculations involving percentage solutions, allegation, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, etc.

5

Powders and Granules: Classification advantages and disadvantages, Preparation of simple, compound powders, Insufflations, Dusting powders, Eutectic and Explosive powders, Toothpowder, and effervescent powders and granules.

6

Monophasic Dosage forms: Theoretical aspects of formulation including adjuvant like stabilizers, colorants, flavours with examples. Study of Monophasic liquids like gargles, mouthwashes, Throat paint, Ear drops, Nasal drops, Liniments and lotions, Enemas, and collodions.

7

Biphasic dosage forms: Suspensions and emulsions, Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classification, test for the type of emulsion, formulation, stability, and evaluation.

8

Suppositories and pessaries: Definition, advantages, and disadvantages, types of base, method of preparation, Displacement value, and evaluation.

9

Galenicals: Definition, equipment for different extraction processes like infusion, Decoction, Maceration, and Percolation, methods of preparation of spirits, tinctures, and extracts.

10

Pharmaceutical calculations.

11

Surgical aids: Surgical dressings, absorbable gelatin sponge, sutures, ligatures, and medicated bandages.

12

Incompatibilities: Introduction, classification, and methods to overcome the incompatibilities.

 

1.2 PHARMACEUTICS (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

List of Experiments:

  1. Syrups
  2. Simple Syrup I.P b. Syrup of Ephedrine Hcl NF c. Syrup Vasaka IP d. Syrup of ferrous Phosphate IP e. Orange Syrup
  3. Elixir
  4. Piperizine citrate elixir BP b. Cascara elixir BPC c. Paracetamol elixir BPC
  5. Linctus
  6. Simple Linctus BPC
  7. Pediatric simple Linctus BPC
  8. Solutions
  9. Solution of cresol with soap IP b. Strong solution of ferric chloride BPC c. Aqueous Iodine Solution IP d. Strong solution of Iodine IP e. Strong solution of ammonium acetate IP
  10. Liniments
  11. Liniment of turpentine IP*
  12. Liniment of camphor IP
  13. Suspensions*
  14. Calamine lotion b. Magnesium Hydroxide mixture BP
  15. Emulsions*
  16. Cod liver oil emulsion
  17. Liquid paraffin emulsion
  18. Powders a. Eutectic powder b. Explosive powder c. Dusting powder d. Insufflations 9. Suppositories a. Boric acid suppositories b. Chloral suppositories 10. Incompatibilities a. Mixtures with Physical b. Chemical & Therapeutic incompatibilities * colourless bottles required for dispensing  Paper envelope (white), butter paper and white paper required for dispensing.

Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals

Annual

Synopsis

05

15

Major Experiment

10

25

Minor Experiment

03

15

Viva

02

15

Max Marks

20

70

Duration

03 hrs

04 hrs

       

 

1.3 MEDICINAL BIOCHEMISTRY (THEORY)

Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week

  1. Scope of the Subject: Applied biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular level of the chemical process associated with living cells. Clinical chemistry deals with the study of chemical aspects of human life in health and illness and the application of chemical laboratory methods to diagnosis, control of treatment, and prevention of diseases. 2. Objectives of the Subject (Know, do, appreciate): The objective of the present course is providing biochemical facts and the principles to the students of pharmacy. Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to –
  2. understand the catalytic activity of enzymes and importance of isoenzymes in diagnosis of diseases;
  3. know the metabolic process of biomolecules in health and illness (metabolic disorders);
  4. understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome; protein synthesis; replication; mutation and repair mechanism;
  5. know the biochemical principles of organ function tests of kidney, liver, and endocrine gland; and
  6. do the qualitative analysis and determination of biomolecules in the body fluids.

 

Textbooks (Theory)

  1. Harper’s review of biochemistry – Martin b. Textbook of biochemistry – D.Satyanarayana c. Textbook of clinical chemistry- Alex Kaplan &Laverve L.Szabo

Reference books (Theory)

  1. Principles of biochemistry — Lehninger b. Textbook of biochemistry — Ramarao c. Practical Biochemistry-David T.Plummer. d. Practical Biochemistry-Pattabhiraman.

3. Lecture wise programme:

Topics

1

Introduction to biochemistry: Cell and its biochemical organization, transport process across the cell membranes. Energy-rich compounds; ATP, Cyclic AMP, and their biological significance.

2

Enzymes: Definition; Nomenclature; IUB classification; Factor affecting enzyme activity; Enzyme action; enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and their therapeutic and diagnostic applications; Coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficiency diseases.

3

Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), HMP shunt, Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. Metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases); Glucose, Galactose tolerance test and their significance; hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

4

Lipid metabolism: Oxidation of saturated (-oxidation); Ketogenesis and ketolysis; biosynthesis of fatty acids, lipids; metabolism of cholesterol; Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism. Defective metabolism of lipids (Atheroslerosis, fatty liver, hypercholesterolmiea).

5

Biological oxidation: Coenzyme system involved in Biological oxidation. Electron transport chain (its mechanism in energy capture; regulation and inhibition); Uncouplers of ETC; Oxidative phosphorylation;

6

Protein and amino acid metabolism: protein turn over; nitrogen balance; Catabolism of Amino acids (Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation). Urea cycle and its metabolic disorders; production of bile pigments; hyperbilirubinemia, porphoria, jaundice. Metabolic disorder of Amino acids.

7

Nucleic acid metabolism: Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides; Protein synthesis; Genetic code; inhibition of protein synthesis; mutation and repair mechanism; DNA replication (semiconservative /onion peel models) and DNA repair mechanism.

8

Introduction to clinical chemistry: Cell; composition; malfunction; Roll of the clinical chemistry laboratory.

9

The kidney function tests: Role of kidney; Laboratory tests for normal function include- a) Urine analysis (macroscopic and physical examination, quantitative and semiquantitative tests.) b) Test for NPN constituents. (Creatinine /urea clearance, determination of blood and urine creatinine, urea, and uric acid) c) Urine concentration test d) Urinary tract calculi. (stones)

10

Liver function tests: Physiological role of liver, metabolic, storage, excretory, protective, circulatory functions, and function in blood coagulation. a) Test for hepatic dysfunction-Bile pigments metabolism. b) Test for hepatic function test- Serum bilirubin, urine bilirubin, and urine urobilinogen. c) Dye tests of excretory function. d) Tests based upon abnormalities of serum proteins. Selected enzyme tests.

11

Lipid profile tests: Lipoproteins, composition, functions. Determination of serum lipids, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

12

Immunochemical techniques for determination of hormone levels and protein levels in serum for endocrine diseases and infectious diseases. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA)

13

Electrolytes: Body water, compartments, water balance, and electrolyte distribution. Determination of sodium, calcium potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates in the body fluids.

 

1.3 MEDICINAL BIOCHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

 Title of the Experiment:

1 Qualitative analysis of normal constituents of urine.*

2 Qualitative analysis of abnormal constituents of urine.*

3 Quantitative estimation of urine sugar by Benedict’s reagent method.**

4 Quantitative estimation of urine chlorides by Volhard’s method.**

5 Quantitative estimation of urine creatinine by Jaffe’s method.**

6 Quantitative estimation of urine calcium by precipitation method.**

7 Quantitative estimation of serum cholesterol by Libermann Burchard’s method.**

8 Preparation of Folin Wu filtrate from blood.* 9 Quantitative estimation of blood creatinine.**

10 Quantitative estimation of blood sugar Folin-Wu tube method.**

11 Estimation of SGOT in serum.**

12 Estimation of SGPT in serum.**

13 Estimation of Urea in Serum.**

14 Estimation of Proteins in Serum.**

15 Determination of serum bilirubin**

16 Determination of Glucose by means of Glucoseoxidase.**

17 Enzymatic hydrolysis of Glycogen/Starch by Amylases.**

18 Study of factors affecting Enzyme activity. (pH & Temp.)**

19 Preparation of standard buffer solutions and its pH measurements (any two)*

20 Experiment on lipid profile tests**

21 Determination of sodium,calcium and potassium in serum.

** ** indicate major experiments & * indicate minor experiments

 

Assignments:

Format of assignment 1. Minimum & Maximum number of pages. 2. It shall be computer draft copy. 3. Reference(s) shall be included at the end. 4. Name and signature of the student. 5. Assignment can be a combined presentation at the end of the academic year. 6. Time allocated for presentation may be 8+2 Min.

Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals

Annual

Synopsis

05

15

Major Experiment

10

25

Minor Experiment

03

15

Viva

02

15

Max Marks

20

70

Duration

03hrs

04hrs

       

 

1.4 PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (THEORY)

Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week

  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a very good knowledge about
  2. IUPAC/Common system of nomenclature of simple organic compounds belonging to different classes of organic compounds;
  3. Some important physical properties of organic compounds;
  4. Free radical/ nucleophyllic [alkyl/ acyl/ aryl] /electrophyllic substitution, free radical/ nucleophyllic/electrophyllic addition, elimination, oxidation and reduction reactions with mechanism, orientation of the reaction, order of reactivity, stability of compounds;

 

  1. Some named organic reactions with mechanisms; and e. Methods of preparation, test for purity, principle involved in the assay, important medicinal uses of some important organic compounds. 2. Course materials:

Textbooks

  1. T.R.Morrison and R. Boyd – Organic chemistry,
  2. Bentley and Driver-Text book of Pharmaceutical chemistry
  3. I.L.Finer- Organic chemistry, the fundamentals of chemistry

 

Reference books

  1. Organic chemistry – J.M.Cram and D.J.Cram
  2. Organic chemistry- Brown
  3. Advanced organic chemistry- Jerry March, Wiley
  4. Organic chemistry- Cram and Hammered, Pine Hendrickson

 

2. Lecture wise programme:

Topics

 

1

Structures and Physical properties:

a. Polarity of bonds, polarity of molecules, M.P, Intermolecular forces, B.P, Solubility, non-ionic solutes and ionic solutes, protic and aprotic Solvents, ion pairs,

b. Acids and bases, Lowry bronsted and Lewis theories

c. Isomerism

 

 

2

Nomenclature of organic compound belonging to the following classes Alkanes, Alkenes, Dienes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amides, Amines, Phenols, Alkyl Halides, Carboxylic Acid, Esters, Acid Chlorides And Cycloalkanes.

 

3

Free radicals chain reactions of alkane: Mechanism, relative reactivity, and stability

 

4

Alicyclic compounds: Preparations of cycloalkanes, Bayer strain theory, and orbital picture of angle strain.

 

5

Nuclophilic aliphatic substitution mechanism: Nucleophiles and leaving groups, kinetics of second and first-order reaction, mechanism and kinetics of SN2 reactions. Stereochemistry and steric hindrance, role of solvents, phase transfer catalysis, mechanism and kinetics of SN1 reactions, stereochemistry, carbocation and their stability, rearrangement of carbocation, role of solvents in SN1 reaction, Ion dipole bonds, SN2 versus SN1 solvolyses, nucleophilic assistance by the solvents.

 

6

Dehydro halogenation of alkyl halides: 1,2 elimination, kinetics, E2 and E1 mechanism, elimination via carbocation, evidence for E2 mechanism, absence of rearrangement isotope effect, absence hydrogen exchange, the element effect, orientation and reactivity, E2 versus E1, elimination versus substitution, dehydration of alcohol, ease of dehydration, acid catalysis, reversibility, orientation.

 

7

Electrophillic and free radicals addition: Reactions at carbon-carbon, double bond, electrophile, hydrogenation, heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes, markownikoff rule, addition of hydrogen halides, addition of hydrogen bromides, peroxide effect, electrophillic addition, mechanism, rearrangement, absence of hydrogen exchange, orientation and reactivity, addition of halogen, mechanism, halohydin formation, mechanism of free radicals additon, mechanism of peroxide initiated addition of hydrogen bromide, orientation of free addition, additions of carbene to alkene, cyclo addition reactions.

 

8

Carbon-carbon double bond as substituents: Free radical halogenations of alkenes, comparision of free radical substitution with free radical addition, free radical substitution in alkenes, orientation, and reactivity, allylic rearrangements.

 

9

Theory of resonance: Allyl radical as a resonance hybrid, stability, orbital picture, resonance stabilisation of allyl radicals, hyperconjugation, allyl cation as a resonance hybrid, nucleophyllic substitution in allylic substrate, SN1 reactivity, allylic rearrangement, resonance stabilisation of allyl cation, hyperconjugation, nucleophilic substitution in allylic substrate, SN2 nucleophilic substitution in vinylic substrate, vinylic cation, stability of conjugated dienes, resonance in alkenes, hyperconjugation, ease of formation of conjugated dienes, orientation of elimination, electrophilic addition to conjugated dienes, 1,4- addition, 1,2-versus 1,4-addition, rate versus equilibrium, orientation, and reactivity of free radical addition to conjugated dienes.

 

10

Electrophilic aromatic substitution: Effect of substituent groups, determination of orientation, determination of relative reactivity, classification of substituent group, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel craft alkylation, Friedel craft acylation, reactivity, and orientation, activating and deactivating O, P, M directing groups, electron release via resonance, effect of halogen on electrophilic aromatic substitution in alkylbenzene, side-chain halogenation of alkylbenzene, resonance stabilization of benzyl radical.

 

11

Nucleophilic addition reaction: Mechanism, ionisation of carboxylic acids, acidity constants, acidity of acids, structure of carboxylate ions, effect of substituent on acidity, nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction, conversion of acid to acid chloride, esters, amide, and anhydride. Role of a carboxyl group, comparison of alkyl nucleophilic substitution with acyl nucleophilic substitution.

 

12

Mechanism of aldol condensation, claisen condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, crossed aldol condensation, crossed Cannizzaro reaction, benzoin condensation, perkin condensation. Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reaction, Wittig reaction, Michael addition.

13

Hoffman rearrangement: Migration to electron-deficient nitrogen, Sandmeyer’s reaction, basicity of amines, diazotisation and coupling, acidity of phenols, Williamson synthesis, Fries rearrangement, Kolbe reaction, Reimer Tieman’s reactions.

14

Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Bimolecular displacement mechanisms, orientation, comparison of aliphatic nucleophilic substitution with that of aromatic.

15

Oxidation-reduction reaction.

16

Study of the following official compounds- preparation, test for purity, assay and medicinal uses of Chlorbutol, Dimercaprol, Glyceryl trinitrate, Urea, Ethylene diamine dihyrate, Vanillin, Paraldehyde, Ethylene chloride, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, citric acid, salicylic acid, aspirin, methyl salicylate, ethyl benzoate, benzyl benzoate, dimethyl pthalate, sodium lauryl sulphate, saccharin sodium, mephensin.

 

1.4 PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

  1. Introduction to the various laboratory techniques through demonstration involving synthesis of the following compounds (at least 8 compounds to be synthesised):
  2. Acetanilde / aspirin (Acetylation)
  3. Benzanilide / Phenyl benzoate (Benzoylation)
  4. P-bromo acetanilide / 2,4,6 – tribromo aniline (Bromination)
  5. Dibenzylidene acetone (Condensation)
  6. 1-Phenylazo-2-napthol (Diazotisation and coupling)
  7. Benzoic acid / salicylic acid (Hydrolysis of ester)
  8. M-dinitro benzene (Nitration)
  9. 9, 10 – Antharaquinone (Oxidation of anthracene) / preparation of benzoic acid from toluene or benzaldehyde
  10. M-phenylene diamine (Reduction of M-dinitrobenzene) / Aniline from nitrobenzene
  11. Benzophenone oxime
  12. Nitration of salicylic acid
  13. Preparation of picric acid
  14. Preparation of O-chlorobenzoic acid from O-chlorotolune
  15. Preparation of cyclohexanone from cyclohexanol
  16. Identification of organic compounds belonging to the following classes by :

Systematic qualitative organic analysis including preparation of derivatives Phenols, amides, carbohydrates, amines, carboxylic acids, aldehyde and ketones, Alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, anilides, nitrocompounds.

III. Introduction to the use of stereo models: Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Acetylene, Cis alkene, Trans alkene, inversion of configuration.

Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals

Annual

Synopsis

05

15

Major Experiment

10

25

Minor Experiment

03

15

Viva

02

15

Max Marks

20

70

Duration

03hrs

04hrs

       

 

1.5 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (THEORY)

Theory: 2 Hrs. /Week

  1. Scope and objectives: This course mainly deals with fundamentals of Analytical chemistry and also the study of inorganic pharmaceuticals regarding their monographs and also the course deals with basic knowledge of analysis of various pharmaceuticals.
  2. Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:
  3. under stand the principles and procedures of analysis of drugs and also regarding the application of inorganic pharmaceuticals;
  4. know the analysis of the inorganic pharmaceuticals their applications; and
  5. appreciate the importance of inorganic pharmaceuticals in preventing and curing the disease.

Course materials:

Textbooks

  1. A textbook Inorganic medicinal chemistry by Surendra N. Pandeya
  2. A. H. Beckett and J. B. Stanlake’s Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry Vol-I & Vol-II
  3. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry III-Edition P.Gundu Rao

 

Reference books

  1. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Anand & Chetwal
  2. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry by Dr.B.G.Nagavi c. Analytical chemistry principles by John H. Kennedy d. I.P.1985 and 1996, Govt. of India, Ministry of health

 

3. Lecture wise programme:

Topics

1

Errors

2

Volumetric analysis

3

Acid-base titrations

4

Redox titrations

5

Nonaqueous titrations

6

Precipitation titrations

7

Complexometric titrations

8

Theory of indicators

9

Gravimetry

10

Limit tests

11

Medicinal gases

12

Acidifiers

13

Antacids

14

Cathartics

15

Electrolyte replenishers

16

Essential Trace elements

17

Antimicrobials

18

Pharmaceutical aids

19

Dental Products

20

Miscellaneous compounds

21

Radio Pharmaceuticals

     

 

1.5 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL) Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

  1. Limit test (6 exercises)
  2. Limit test for chlorides b. Limit test for sulphates c. Limit test for iron d. Limit test for heavy metals e. Limit test for arsenic f. Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates
  3. Assays (10 exercises)
  4. Ammonium chloride- Acid-base titration b. Ferrous sulphate- Cerimetry c. Copper sulpahte- Iodometry d. Calcilugluconate- Complexometry e. Hydrogen peroxide – Permanganometry f. Sodium benzoate – Nonaqueous titration g. Sodium chloride – Modified volhard’s method h. Assay of KI – KIO3 titration i. Gravimetric estimation of barium as barium sulphate j. Sodium antimony gluconate or antimony potassium tartarate
  5. Estimation of mixture (Any two exercises)
  6. Sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate
  7. Boric acid and Borax c. Oxalic acid and sodium oxalate
  8. Test for identity (Any three exercises)
  9. Sodium bicorbonate
  10. Barium sulphate
  11. Ferrous sulphate
  12. Potassium chloride
  13. Test for purity (Any two exercises)
  14. Swelling power in Bentonite
  15. Acid neutralising capacity in aluminium hydroxide gel
  16. Ammonium salts in potash alum
  17. Adsorption power heavy Kaolin
  18. Presence of Iodates in KI
  19. Preparations (Any two exercises)
  20. Boric acids
  21. Potash alum
  22. Calcium lactate
  23. Magnesium suphate

Scheme of Practical Examination: Sessionals

Annual

Synopsis

05

15

Major Experiment

10

25

Minor Experiment1&2

03

15

Viva

02

15

Max Marks

20

70

Duration

03hrs

04hrs

       

 

 

1.6 REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS/BIOLOGY (THEORY)

Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week

REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS :

  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in mathematics. This subject deals with the introduction to matrices, determinants, trigonometry, analytical geometry, differential calculus, integral calculus, differential equations, Laplace transform.
  2. Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able to:
  3. Know Trignometry, Analytical geometry, Matrices, Determinant, Integration, Differential equation, Laplace transforms and their applications;
  4. solve the problems of different types by applying theory; and
  5. appreciate the important applications of mathematics in pharmacy.

Course materials:

Textbooks

  1. Differential calculus By Shanti Narayan
  2. Textbook of Mathematics for second year pre-university by Prof.B.M.Sreenivas

Reference books

  1. Integral calculus By Shanthinarayan
  2. Engineering mathematics By B.S.Grewal c. Trigonometry Part-I By S.L.Loney

 

4. Lecture wise programme:

Topics

1

Algebra: Determinants, Matrices

2

Trigonometry: Sides and angles of a triangle, solution of triangles

3

Analytical Geometry: Points, Straight line, circle, parabola

4

Differential calculus: Limit of a function, Differential calculus, Differentiation of a sum, Product, Quotient Composite, Parametric, exponential, trigonometric, and Logarithmic function. Successive differentiation, Leibnitz’s theorem, Partial differentiation, Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions of two variables

5

Integral Calculus: Definite integrals, integration by substitution and by parts, Properties of definite integrals.

6

Differential equations: Definition, order, degree, variable separable, homogeneous, Linear, heterogeneous, linear, differential equation with constant coefficient, simultaneous linear equation of second order.

7

Laplace transform: Definition, Laplace transform of elementary functions, Properties of linearity, and shifting.

 

BIOLOGY :

  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in Biology, which gives detailed study of natural sources such as plant and animal origin. This subject has been introduces to the pharmacy course in order to make the student aware of various naturally occurring drugs and its history, sources, classification, distribution, and the characters of the plants and animals. This subject gives basic foundation to Pharmacognosy.

Course materials:

Textbooks

  1. Textbook of Biology by S.B.Gokhale
  2. A Textbook of Biology by Dr.Thulajappa and Dr. Seetaram.

Reference books

  1. A Textbook of Biology by B.V.Sreenivasa Naidu
  2. A Textbook of Biology by Naidu and Murthy
  3. Botany for Degree students By A.C.Dutta.
  4. Outlines of Zoology by M.Ekambaranatha ayyer and T.N.Ananthakrishnan.
  5. A manual for pharmaceutical biology practical by S.B.Gokhale and C.K.Kokate.

3. Lecture wise programme: Topic

PART – A

01

Introduction

02

General organization of plants and its inclusions

03

Plant tissues

04

Plant kingdom and its classification

05

Morphology of plants

06

Root, Stem, Leaf and Its modifications

07

Inflorescence and Pollination of flowers

08

Morphology of fruits and seeds

09

Plant physiology

10

Taxonomy of Leguminosae, Umbelliferae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae, Zinziberaceae, Rubiaceae

11

Study of Fungi, Yeast, Penicillin, and Bacteria

 

PART-B

01

Study of Animal cell

02

Study animal tissues

03

Detailed study of frog

04

Study of Pisces, Reptiles, Aves

05

Genearal organization of mammals

06

Study of poisonous animals

 

 

1.6 BIOLOGY (PRACTICAL)

Practical : 3 Hrs./Week

Topics

1.

 

Introduction of biology experiments

2.

Study of cell wall constituents and cell inclusions

3.

Study of Stem modifications

4.

Study of Root modifications

5.

Study of Leaf modifications

6.

Identification of Fruits and seeds

7.

Preparation of Permanent slides

8.

T.S. of Senna, Cassia, Ephedra, Podophyllum.

9.

Simple plant physiological experiments

10.

Identification of animals

11.

Detailed study of Frog

12.

Computer-based tutorials

 

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